THE BASHKIR BREED (Baskir Horse)
The Bashkir breed has appeared 100 years ago near southern foothills of the Ural mountains. bashkirs were used in the Volga and Ural areas for riding and in a harness. Also the Bashkir horses were involved in Napoleon's wars.
The history of development of the Bashkir horse is typical for all steppe breeds. This breed has rather ancient origin. The Bashkir equestrians and selectionists appeared on the territory which now is known as Bashkortostan, in 7-th century. The Bashkir horse originates from a steppe horse of the Western Asia, whose remains were found in ancient grave hills.
The Bashkir breed - is a result of crossing of steppe horse with lived to the north of Bashkiria. The evolution passed under influence of hard continental climate.
The Bashkir breed has a long and massive body with the flat and wide back, short croup and wide thorax. A head is large with a direct or Roman type. The neck is short and fleshy.
The basic feature of the Bashkir horse - is very thick, curling winter wool which helps to survive in severe winter conditions. A mane and tail of bashkirs are thick.
Stallions: height – 142sm, length of a trunk – 146sm, circumference of breast - 173sm, a circumference of metacarpus is 19,5sm. Mares: height – 142sm, length of a trunk – 147sm, circumference of breast - 170sm, circumference of metacarpus - 19sm.
The basic colour of the Bashkir horse is roan, but there is a lot of chestnut, bay, piebald and black horse.
There are two types of the Bashkir breed: a steppe and mountain Bashkir horse. A mountain horse was crossed with donchaks and budennovskiye, and a steppe one with trotters and ardenns.
THE BUDENNY BREED (The Budenny Horse)
It was deducedduring 1921-1948 by the group of selectionists under the direction of S.M.Budenny by the method of the reproductive crossing of the Don and Black Sea horses (the Black Sea breed was used by the cossacks who settled on Kuban in the eighteenth century, and it was similar to Don, but yielded to it in sizes and massiveness a little) with thoroughbred saddle-horses Budenny and the First Horse army’s horse-breeding centres of the Rostov area. The first experiments of pairing of thoroughbred stallions with the Don and Black Sea mares showed encouraging results. The further selection work has been directed on creation of new breed which would receive from a thoroughbred horse good riding and sped qualities energetic temperament, elegant motions; from Don - massiveness of a build, the strong constitution, ability to breed and develop in the conditions of civilized manner-herd maintenance and unfavorable climatic terms. To 1948 the plant-breedings and technological measures of creation the new breed were executed, the breed was approved. Getting the name of budennovskaya, this breed was officially in 1949.
The horse of strong constitution turned out, with massive build, energetic, with a good riding exterior and productive motions at all the pace, with high playfulness, capable to dressage. The average height in withers is 162-166 up to 170sm, circumference of breast is 188-189sm, the length of the body exceeds growth 1-2sm. The Budenny horses have good proportions of the head with a direct or slightly concave structure; a long direct neck; the shoulders with high withers put rather aslant heavy body with a short direct back and long croup; harmonious direct legs thou a bit shallow in joints, and rather weak back legs; usually correct form of hoofs. A prevailing colour is red and goldish-red, there is brown, bay and darkly-bay. A breed is highly valued on the international auctions.
In a breed it is distinguished and cultivated intra-breeding types:
Massive (thick) the horses are very large and massive, possess good adaptability to the civilized manner-herd terms of maintenance, suitable for work in a harness and under a saddle;
Eastern to horses are characterized by the original eastern race, dryness of constitution, energeticness of temperament, endurance in work, however they are more exacting to conditions of feeding and the maintenance on comparing to the horse of massive type;
Middle are horse with the more brightly expressed lines of thoroughbred riding breed, they have good muscles, high speed abilities.
THE DON BREED (Don Horse)
It is one of the oldest domestic breeds of horses. It was generated in the XVIII-XIX centuries. The native land of it is Russian southern steppes on the banks of Don and its tributaries. The horses of the south of Russia were served as the basis for cultivation of breed, they were improved by stallions of the eastern origin, - Persian, Turkmenian, Karabakh. Firstly the medium-sized, very mobile and wiry horse was deduced, famous for its endurance, so-called starodonskaya horse. On these horses the Don cossacks participated in Suvorov’s campaigns through the Alpes and successfully struggled with army of Napoleon in 1812.
In the years of civil war the serious damage was caused to the breed. In 1920s under S.M.Budyonny's initiative on Don the horse-breeding centers were created where the work on restoration and perfection of this breed began. As a result of purposeful breeding work donchaks got some valuable qualities. Their capacity for work got a high estimation during the Great Patriotic war.
The modern horses of the Don breed are notable for strong constitution, they are simple in feeding and the maintenance, very hardy. They have a wide body with the massive, a little bit lengthened case, a small or average head, strong legs. The height in withers for mares on the average is 162sm, the circumference of breast is 195 see, a circumference of metacarpus is 20sm the colour basically is red (from absolutely light up to brown), often with golden tint. Many horses have white marks on the legs and head. Having got a high capacity for work under a saddle and in a harness, they are successfully used in equestrian sport. Without any effort they pass more than 100km a day. In Kazakhstan and Kirghizia they where used for improvement of local horses and deducing of new breeds, - novokirgizskaya, kustanayskaya and kushumskaya. As a result of crossing horses of the Don and thoroughbred riding breeds the budennovskaya breed is get.
THE FRIESIAN BREED (Friesian Horse)
Friesian breed is one of rare breeds of domestic animals that during several centuries keeps the initial universal type for which the features of heavy drought-horse and a saddle horse are simultaneously characteristic. This exotic breed got in the province Frizland in the north of Netherlands. Before the horses of Friesian breed were used in agricultural works and in harnessing, today Friesian horse lovers breed these horses for the use under a saddle and in a harness.
The Friesian horse is harmoniously built horse with correct proportions. A noble head with clear, clever eyes and small mobile ears, the tips of which are slightly facing to each other. The neck is with a small bend of correct length; the powerful back passing in long, but at the same time not too mowed croup.
The shoulder is strong and sloping. The back is of correct form with rounded sides. Powerful legs are with well developed, correctly located forearm. The smooth, even, elegant and high motion, the impression of which is strengthened by thick brushes, good-looking thick wavy mane and beautiful, long tail.
The Friesians are characterized by energetic, but balanced temperament and the main thing that peculiar only to them, by high motion a high course on all the paces. Such showy high motions do not correspond to the requirements to a sports horse today, however they are especially highly valued breed lovers. It is characteristic for a Friesian breed to transfer stability of the type, ex-terrier’s features and paces. In brief it is possible to say, that this is a magnificent, fair horse with the big feedback and desire to work.
The ideal height in the withers at three-year age is 160sm.
The basic colour is black, coal-black.
THE HUNGARIAN BREED
Two names of breed are used: Hungarian (warm-blooded) or Hungarian half-breed.
The deducing of horses for leisure and sports in Hungary was engaged in 1960 continuing traditions easy horses of cultivation. The creation of breed was conducted by the method of reproductive intra-breeding select crossing of several Hungarian breeds of horses. As a result the breed of "warm-blooded sporting horse" such as Golshtin or Hanover type was received. In the beginning the mares of different breeds, were taken for crossing, but the emphasis on thoroughbred riding, and then on arabs subsequently was made. This selection strategy has allowed to receive an elite horse with good wide gallop.
The deducing of breed occured in main studs of Hungary - famous for the traditions of Mezokhed'esh; in Kishber, named by name the Hungarian horse , winning English Derby in 1876, and in Kecskemet, famous for half breed harness horse.
The average height of this breed horses is 160-170sm in withers. The Hungarian horses are very beautiful, with noble temperament, with living easy motions, exceptional intellect and build. All of basic solid colours are assumed.
For stallions-producers a very strict selection is conducted. Every stallion must be examined, licensed, approved by the committee of reproduction and it should carry out sports qualifications necessarily.
The horses of the Hungarian breed are suitable for all classical kinds of equestrian sport: dressage, jumping, eventing. They achieve outstanding successes in the international competitions.
ORLOV TROTTING BREED (Orlov Trotter)
It is the Russian breed of trotters. It was deduced at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries on Khrenovsky stud farm by a count A.G.Orlov-Chesmensky (it was named after him), and V.I.Shishkin heading a factory within 20 years after Orlov’s death. It was created by the complex reproductive crossing in which about 15 various breeds were involved (Arabic, Turkmenian, Turkish, Persian, English thoroughbred riding and horness, Don, Dutch, Danish, Meklenburgian and others). Training and tests of the horses intended for breeding use played the important part in creation of breed. In productive structure the most thoroughbred stallions were selected shown sufficient endurance and playfulness during the tests.
Large, good-looking and quick Orlov trotters were in great demand. From the beginning of the 19th century they were breed on many private stud farms, and from the middle of the last century they became the basic grades in mass horse breeding in Russia.
Modern Orlov trotters have the average height in withers about 160sm (many stallions are up to 165sm and higher), slanting length is 164,5sm, the circumference of breast is 186sm, the circumference of metacarpus is 20-21sm. It is characteristic for them to have the expressed harness type, well developed thorax, long corps, not always dry enough finitenesses, rather large hoofs. A mane and tail are thick and long.
About half of all horses are of grey colour, they are a lot of black and bay; red and others are met extremely seldom. For the last decades a breed notedly made progress in playfulness. However on the whole Orlov trotters yield the horse of the Russian trotting breed in playfulness.
RUSSIAN TROTTING BREED (Russian Trotter)
The breed of trotters was deduced by crossing of Orlov trotting and American standard breeds and subsequent breeding of cross-breeds "in itself". It is officially authorized in1949.
The horses of the Russian trotting breed differ in the expressed type, massiveness, strong dry constitution. They have a dry head with straight lines or slightly protuberant type, a good line of top, a deep breast, dry finitenesses with small brushes. On measurements (height in withers is 160sm, length of a trunk is 162sm, the circumference of breast is 184sm, the circumference of metacarpus 19,5sm) the Russian trotter a bit yields to Orlov trotter but considerably excels American. Playfulness of the horses of the Russian trotting breed is considerably higher, in comparison with Orlov trotters.
The colour is basically bay and black, rarely it can be grey and red.
The Russian trotters, having kept in most cases the large sizes and addition became notedly quicker then Orlov trotters. They acted successfully enough not only on hippodromes of Russia, but also in a number of the European countries.
These horses had the certain value in perfection of working qualities of horses on collective farms and state farms. Today Russian trotter has kept the value extremely as sports breed of horses for races. Also they are successfully used for grading in the mass horse breeding.
THE TRAKEHNER BREED (Trakehner Horse)
It is a half-breed horse deduced the 18th century on the Traken stud farm Germany (founded in 1732) by crossing local horses with thoroughbred riding, Arabic and some others. Originally this breed was used in cavalry, now it is used as the universal sports horse, acting in competitions in dressage, jumping and eventing equally well. Trakehner horse, proceeding from the selection program which was offered by German experts as long ago as in the beginning of 20th century, should possess well-behavior, universal capacity for work. During the different periods of the history as well as the horses of other breeds, it was used as high quality cavalry horse and the working horse for agriculture, and during the last 30 years it used in equestrian sport.
The horses of this breed have a harmonious constitution, a dry head with a direct type, long line muscular neck, wide back, deep breast, strong dry finitenesses. The height in withers is 162-165sm, slanting length - 165-169sm, the circumference of breast is 192sm, the circumference of metacarpus is 20,5-21,7sm. The colour is bay, red, black, dark bay, the grey colour is met very rarely.
In the former USSR a large group of trakehner horses appeared in 1945. Now they are breed on the stud farms in the Rostov area, Belorus, Latvia and Lithuania. In equestrian sport trakehners are in good fame.
THE THOROUGHBRED RIDING BREED (Thoroughbred Horse)
It is a breed of the saddle horses distinguished by unsurpassed playfulness, distance and force. It is deduced in England on the boundary of the XVIIth-XVIIIth centuries. In the basis of the breeding work there was a selection of the most quick horses from the number the Arabic and the Central Asian breeds. The greats importance in the deducing of breed belonged to harmonous system of training and tests and the strict control over the origin of animals.
From 1973 the herd-book is conducted. The horses of thoroughbred riding breed are distinguished with proportional strong, dry, developed constitution with dense muscles, long powerful finitenesses with brightly outlined sinews, a thin skin. The average height in the withers of mares is about 160sm, the circumference of breast is 184sm, circumference of metacarpus is 19,5sm. The head is easy, with large eyes and mobile ears, the neck is long, the breast is deep. he length of corps, as a rule, is equal to the height in withers. The temperament is living, energetic. The colours mainly bay and red, rarer black and grey.
Only these horses run one kilometer less than for a minute, and the world record is equal to 53 seconds.
In Russia the thoroughbred saddle horse is deduced within 200 years. Animals are reared on 15 stud farms and on a number of cattle-breeding farms. The best breeding farm is the horse-breeding centre "Voskhod" in Krasnodar territory, reared the series of magnificent runners. This breed was used for the deducing of half-breed riding breeds, and also for the Orlov’s and American trotters.
THE UKRAINIAN RIDING BREED (Ukrainian Horse)
The Ukrainian saddle horse was authorized in October 1990. It was deduced in the state horse-breeding centers, on the stud farms and in collective and state farms of Ukraine.
Purposeful breeding work on crossing local horses with entered Hungarian, Trakehners and the Hanover stallions began soon after the finishing of the Great Patriotic war. The active participation in creation of breed was taken by D.A.Volkov, A.A.Kalantar, P.A.Deyneka, V.V.Stashensky, I.E.Gotlib, etc.
Originally selection-breeding work was conducted in the direction of riding-harness horses, and from 1953 riding horses, it has been connected with the development of equestrian sport in Ukraine. In the connection with new problems thoroughbred riding stud-horses and stallions with different parts of Russian riding breed’s blood were involved in the selection process except mentioned above.
The horses were selected on growth, riding forms, strong constitution, quality of motions and other useful features. The scientific research institute of stock-raising of Forest-steppe and Polesye of Ukraine managed breeding work. The horses were reared in the conditions of stable-pascual maintenance. The best young growth in the age of one and a half years took part in the dressage and in the training under a saddle; 2-years-old horses were tested in even gallops on the Lvov hippodrome, and the horses of three years and older were also used in other kinds of horse-racing competitions.
As a result of the long purposeful selection in Ukraine the large homogeneous group of sports horses, was created suitable for classical kinds of equestrian sport (dressage, jumping, eventing), equestrian tourism, hire and national games. The horses of this group are widely used in agriculture for transportation of different loads, travelling in automobile cabs and under a saddle. The popularity of horses grew after the XIXth Olympic games (1968) in Mexico.
The elegance of the ex-terrier whose features are peculiar to Russian riding breed is characteristic for the Ukrainian saddle horses. The Ukrainian saddle horses surpass initial breeds on measurements. Measurements of the stallions written down in the State book are the following. Sm: the height in the withers is 164,3, slanting length of a trunk is 164,2, circumference of breast - 191.2, circumference of metacarpus - 20,8. The basic colours are black, dark bay, bay. The horses are well-behaves, suitable for all kinds of equestrian sport. The Ukrainian saddle horses horse are gladly bought on international auctions.